BLACK people were not always at the bottom in terms of civilisation. 

Until the time of the Greek civilisation, blacks were dominant in the known world.

The Greeks based their civilisation on knowledge from Persia (Iran), Babylon (Iraq), Assyria (Syria) and, most notably, Egypt.

Greek scribes routinely studied and translated every useful thing they were exposed to upon entering the known world. 

After translating subjects like mathematics to the Greek language, they would destroy the original documents.

Higher learning institutions were taken over: For example, the Egyptian university, renamed ‘Alexandria’, had a world renowned library before the Greeks took it over.

After the Greco-Roman era, blacks returned to world dominance throughout the Moorish period.

It was a black renaissance which ultimately led to the civilisation of both southern Europeans and the Caucasian Barbarians. 

Moors were as black as ink, with many of them originating from Arabia, East Africa and West Africa. 

Moors were as black as ink, with many of them originating from Arabia, East Africa and West Africa.

Mixed race Moors were called tawny Moors and Moranos.

The word ‘Moor’ meant black (moro) in Latin and was replaced by the word ‘negro’, which meant the same thing in Portuguese and Spanish.

Almost 800 years passed, with black people from places like Senegal ruling Europe from Spain and southern France.

Throughout this period, surgery, irrigation, street lights, running water, modern construction and architecture, algebra, algorithms, numerals, almanacs and chivalry, among others, so on were introduced to Europe by the Moors. 

Oriental inventions and resources like the compass, silk, gun powder, ceramics, paper, tobacco, smoking pipes and so on were also introduced to Europe by the Moors whose hegemony reached lands beyond Indonesia.

All this is largely forgotten, and the blackness of both ancient Egyptians and Moors is denied and doubted by many whites and blacks today. 

This is despite the overwhelming evidence of blackness in ancient Egyptian and Moorish art.

In Egypt, the sculptures of black Pharaohs and the paintings of black Egyptians on walls are ignored over contemporary cartoons and films that depict ancient Egyptians as red or white people.

Moors are depicted as black-skinned people with Afros, broad nostrils, full lips and so on in European flags and crests. 

These can be found in northern Europe, as far as Germany and Denmark on Middle Age artefacts, particularly flags.

These Moors are always shown in positions of distinction and wearing crowns. 

It proves that though the presence of Moors was most evident in Spain and southern France, their influence spread further north where the blacks were revered and honoured  as civilisers.

African symbols like the lion were strongly associated with Moors who introduced them to Europe. 

The Moors accepted the attendance of whites to their schools of higher learning as long as they became Muslim. 

Many whites thus converted to Islam and attended Moorish universities, like Taledo in Spain.

They learnt Arabic writing, numerals, navigation, mapping and so on which would enable whites, particularly the Spanish and Portuguese to eventually partake in colonial expeditions. 

The Roman Catholic Pope, after militarily overcoming the Moors with help from the monarchs of Spain in 1492, forced everyone in southern Europe to convert to Catholicism or face death or expulsion.

The traces of blacks and Muslims in Europe became cold because of the Spanish Inquisition and other acts of ethnic cleansing that were unleashed by the Catholic Pope.

This was not the first resistance by whites against black progress. 

The crusades were mainly attempts to oust non-whites, especially Moors and Egyptians, from Byzantine Turkey and holy sites like Jerusalem.

The resistance against black organisation and progress has continued to this day.

Though slavery and colonisation are clear evidence of this fact, in this article we shall be looking at specific attempts by blacks to organise themselves that were undone by white governments.

White governments like that of the UK, formerly Britain, have destroyed numerous African liberation movements, ethnic groups and leaders who sought to develop their people and countries.

These include the Mau-Mau movement of Kenya. 

The Mau Mau believed that after decades of suffering, whites had to be gotten rid of for the blacks to be emancipated.

They wore dreadlocks as a sign of race pride and aimed to regain their cultural and traditional values.

In response to their revolt against white culture and rule, the Mau Mau members were attacked, tortured and killed by British troops at every turn. 

They were imprisoned without trial while thousands perished.

Leaders like Patrice Lumumba of the DRC and Thomas Sankara of Burkina Farso were killed for having progressive ideas that could benefit Africans at the expense of their European colonisers.

Sankara, in the 1980s, had successfully stopped Government overspending and corruption. 

His nation was leading in uplifting women’s rights, fighting desertification and producing basic needs like food and clothing locally. 

This was till France orchestrated his assassination by Blaise Campaore, Sankara’s number two in command, in the same manner Lumumba was ousted by his ‘fellow comrade’ Mobutu Sese Seko.

Former President of Zimbabwe, Robert Mugabe, was demonised and his country sanctioned after he led the Land Reform Programme that saw blacks reacquiring land from white settlers without compensation.

Any progress to be made in Zimbabwe since then is stalled by Western sanctions, negative media propaganda, NGOs and opposition party-induced sabotage.

The disruption of black organisation and progress by whites is no different in the West as it is in Africa.

Marcus Garvey pioneered a movement of black liberation and emancipation which helped define what is called pan-Africanism today.

In his time, which was shortly after the abolition of slavery, blacks were constantly lynched and were relegated to the very bottom of the social hierarchy.

They saw no beauty in themselves and knew nothing of their former glory.

Garvey moulded the spirit of the new negro who would, from then on, think highly of him or herself, as a people to whom the world owes a big debt for the fruits of civilisation they now enjoy.

His movement (UNIA) not only addressed issues to do with awakening the slumbering spirit and mentality of blacks, it also dealt with their social welfare.

Black-owned lecture halls, printing presses, music lounges, ships as well as a red, green and black pan-African flag, among other things, were projects brought about by Garvey and his followers who were called ‘Garveyites’.

But he would face unjust imprisonment and deportation from the US. 

This was because he organised the black people of America into a formidable force which had already made a mental and cultural return to Africa. 

If left alone, they were going to make a physical return to their long lost homeland.

Elijah Muhammad, leader of the Nation of Islam Movement  accomplished similar things to Garvey, but his movement had a religious inclination to it. 

It was based on the fact that most blacks were Muslims when they were kidnapped from Africa.

He was behind the production of numerous black schools, books and programmes that reformed the diet, image and character of blacks.

His most prominent student, Malcom X, was assassinated because of his success in disseminating revolutionary teachings to people  besides black Muslims and beyond US borders.

The Black Panther Movement was born out of all these movements and produced free breakfast centres for black students and other black social welfare programmes.

They taught blacks to  fight white oppression and police brutality.

As a result, many of their leaders and members, including Huey P. Newton, Aldridge Cleaver, Fred Hampton, Geronimo Pratt and Matulu Shakur, among others, were killed or imprisoned by US authorities.

Evidently black organisation and progress has been, and continues to be, systematically disrupted by white governments. No wonder Africa remains underdeveloped!

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